Facilities Components

   The Manifold

This is the piping arrangement that routes the many well streams from the well to a collective singular fluid stream or helps to redistribute the well streams to the proper processes that they are required to go through.

They help to control, monitor and distribute fluid flow from one point en-route to another.

   Separator

This is one of the most critical pieces of equipment that is located and used at production facilities. This piece of equipment does the bulk work of separating the well stream into the most fundamental phases namely oil, gas and water. They are usually cylindrical in nature and may be mounted vertically or horizontally, depending on size, space and fluid requirements. Typically separators are arranged in stages based on pressure loss. This pressure must be properly chosen so as control the proportion of the liquid and vapour phases that will either stabilize or go further downstream and may be potentially lost.

  Pumps

These help to move the fluid around the facility through the facility piping. They are also used to move the respective fluid streams through the LACT or metering unit after these fluids have completed their movement through the proper process. In addition they are used to move the fluid quantities from the facility to other point for further processing.

   Water Treatment

This is the way in which we handle the produced water from the reservoir. In many instances this fluid is produced and is of no monetary value and is ultimately disposed of. However it does not mean it is not processed in any way. Far from it is appropriately handled so as to remove as much hydrocarbons as is possible, this allows for the accumulation of the maximum amount of saleable hydrocarbons.

Given the fact that the water is eventually disposed of it must be treated so as to meet environmental standards. This is especially of concern in offshore and marine environments.

       Governing Principles

Such treatment systems take advantage of gravity separation to promote oil droplet flotation. It also used dispersion and coalescence which promotes the gathering of oil droplets thus aiding with their separation from the water phase.

        Typical Equipment

Settling Tank – the simplest piece to be used designed to provide long residence time which promote coalescence and gravity separation.

Coalescers – skim tanks that use internal plates to improve the gravity separation process. These plates provide a surface to promote coalescence and gravity separation. They may be either parallel or corrugated plate interceptors.

Hydrocyclones – these use centrifugal forces to help remove oil droplets from water.

Disposal/Skim Piles – used primarily in offshore and marine environments. They consist of an open ended pipe attached to the platform extending below the water line. They are usually used as a point to dispose of water after it has been treated by the facilities. The centralized disposal of all the facility’s water allows for better monitoring of the effluent and prevents unnecessary spreading of sheens from the residual oil.

The skim pile is a type of disposal pile with internal baffles that aids in residence time.

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