The Principle of Uniformity
This states that the processes operating today affecting the earth have been operating unchanged at the same rates throughout the earth’s history.
The occurrence of a geological event relative to each other. This helps in the dating of geological occurrences. It helps with the identification of a geological continuum.
- Superposition – the study of layered rocks. It lands lends that older rocks are deposited first and are at the bottom of the sequence. The younger rocks are deposited at the top.
- Succession – the deposition of flora and fauna, refers to the deposition of sedimentary material. The fossils of these organisms will be found in the rock formations. Thus the presence, absence or change within a sequence could indicate a possible correlation or rock formations.
- Inclusions – Inclusion of one rock type into surrounding rock is invariably younger rock than the rocks that it intrudes. Good for determining relative age.
- Cross cutting – Pre-existing rocks that can be affected by later folding and faulting of the rock masses.
- Physiographic – the development of the earth’s surface referring to the landscape and landforms.